Publications & Patents


  1. Pal, A., H. Park, A. Ramamurthy, A. S. Asan, T. Bethea, M. Johnkutty and J. B. Carmel (2022). "Spinal cord associative plasticity improves forelimb sensorimotor function after cervical injury." bioRxiv: 2020.2012.2007.398289. View Publication.
  2. Ferre, C. L., Carmel, J. B., Flamand, V. H., Gordon, A. M., & Friel, K. M. (2020). Anatomical and Functional Characterization in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: An Atlas-Based Analysis. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 34(2), 148–158. View Publication.
  3. Wu, Y. K., Levine, J. M., Wecht, J. R., Maher, M. T., LiMonta, J. M., Saeed, S., Santiago, T. M., Bailey, E., Kastuar, S., Guber, K. S., Yung, L., Weir, J. P., Carmel, J. B., & Harel, N. Y. (2020). Posteroanterior cervical transcutaneous spinal stimulation targets ventral and dorsal nerve roots. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 131(2), 451–460. View Publication. 
  4. Sindhurakar, A., Butensky, S. D., & Carmel, J. B. (2019). Automated Forelimb Tasks for Rodents: Current Advantages and Limitations, and Future Promise. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 33(7), 503–512. View Publication.
  5. Wen, T. C., Sindhurakar, A., Ramirez, V. C., Park, H., Gupta, D., & Carmel, J. B. (2019). Targeted Infarction of the Internal Capsule in the Rat Using Microstimulation Guidance. Stroke, 50(9), 2531–2538. View Publication.
  6. Yang, Q., Ramamurthy, A., Lall, S., Santos, J., Ratnadurai-Giridharan, S., Lopane, M., Zareen, N., Alexander, H., Ryan, D., Martin, J. H., & Carmel, J. B. (2019). Independent replication of motor cortex and cervical spinal cord electrical stimulation to promote forelimb motor function after spinal cord injury in rats. Experimental neurology, 320, 112962. View Publication. 
  7. Ratnadurai Giridharan, S., Gupta, D., Pal, A., Mishra, A. M., Hill, N. J., & Carmel, J. B. (2019). Motometrics: A Toolbox for Annotation and Efficient Analysis of Motor Evoked Potentials. Frontiers in neuroinformatics, 13, 8. View Publication.
  8. Mooney, S., Hill, N. J., Tuzun, M. S., Alam, N. M., Carmel, J. B., & Prusky, G. T. (2018). Curveball: A tool for rapid measurement of contrast sensitivity based on smooth eye movements. Journal of vision, 18(12), 7. View Publication.
  9. Wen, T. C., Lall, S., Pagnotta, C., Markward, J., Gupta, D., Ratnadurai-Giridharan, S., Bucci, J., Greenwald, L., Klugman, M., Hill, N. J., & Carmel, J. B. (2018). Plasticity in One Hemisphere, Control From Two: Adaptation in Descending Motor Pathways After Unilateral Corticospinal Injury in Neonatal Rats. Frontiers in neural circuits, 12, 28. View Publication.
  10. Garcia-Sandoval, A., Pal, A., Mishra, A. M., Sherman, S., Parikh, A. R., Joshi-Imre, A., Arreaga-Salas, D., Gutierrez-Heredia, G., Duran-Martinez, A. C., Nathan, J., Hosseini, S. M., Carmel, J. B., & Voit, W. (2018). Chronic softening spinal cord stimulation arrays. Journal of neural engineering, 15(4), 045002. View Publication. 
  11. Marneweck, M., Kuo, H. C., Smorenburg, A., Ferre, C. L., Flamand, V. H., Gupta, D., Carmel, J. B., Bleyenheuft, Y., Gordon, A. M., & Friel, K. M. (2018). The Relationship Between Hand Function and Overlapping Motor Representations of the Hands in the Contralesional Hemisphere in Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 32(1), 62–72. View Publication.
  12. Butensky, S. D., Bethea, T., Santos, J., Sindhurakar, A., Meyers, E., Sloan, A. M., Rennaker, R. L., 2nd, & Carmel, J. B. (2017). The Knob Supination Task: A Semi-automated Method for Assessing Forelimb Function in Rats. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (127), 56341. View Publication.
  13. Butensky SD, Sloan AP, Meyers E, Carmel JB. Dexterity: A MATLAB-based analysis software suite for processing and visualizing data from tasks that measure arm or forelimb function. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2017 Jul;286:114-124. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2017.06.002.
  14. Sindhurakar A, Mishra AM, Gupta D, et al. Clinically Relevant Levels of 4-Aminopyridine Strengthen Physiological Responses in Intact Motor Circuits in Rats, Especially After Pyramidal Tract Injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2017 Apr;31(4):387-396. DOI: 10.1177/1545968316688800.
  15. Hays SA, Ruiz A, Bethea T, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training enhances recovery of forelimb function after ischemic stroke in aged rats. Neurobiology of Aging. 2016 Jul;43:111-118. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.03.030.
  16. Carmel JB, Willis DE. Neural Circuits Catch Fire. Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Apr;13(2):261-263. DOI: 10.1007/s13311-016-0428-4.
  17. Park HG, Carmel JB. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits. Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Apr;13(2):311-324. DOI: 10.1007/s13311-016-0425-7.
  18. Friel KM, Kuo HC, Fuller J, et al. Skilled Bimanual Training Drives Motor Cortex Plasticity in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2016 Oct;30(9):834-844. DOI: 10.1177/1545968315625838.
  19. Carmel JB, Young W, Hart RP. Flipping the transcriptional switch from myelin inhibition to axon growth in the CNS. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2015 ;8:34. DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2015.00034.
  20. Gupta, D., Barachant, A., Gordon, A. M., Ferre, C., Kuo, H. C., Carmel, J. B., & Friel, K. M. (2017). Effect of sensory and motor connectivity on hand function in pediatric hemiplegia. Annals of neurology, 82(5), 766–780.View Publication.
  21. Mishra, A. M., Pal, A., Gupta, D., & Carmel, J. B. (2017). Paired motor cortex and cervical epidural electrical stimulation timed to converge in the spinal cord promotes lasting increases in motor responses. The Journal of physiology, 595(22), 6953–6968. View Publication. 
  22. Suner, M., Prusky, G. T., Carmel, J. B., & Hill, N. J. (2017). Longitudinal Quantification of Eye-Movement Impairments after Pontine Hemorrhage. Frontiers in neurology, 8, 165. View Publication.
  23. Smorenburg, A. R., Gordon, A. M., Kuo, H. C., Ferre, C. L., Brandao, M., Bleyenheuft, Y., Carmel, J. B., & Friel, K. M. (2017). Does Corticospinal Tract Connectivity Influence the Response to Intensive Bimanual Therapy in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy?. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 31(3), 250–260. View Publication.
  24. Sindhurakar, A., Butensky, S. D., Meyers, E., Santos, J., Bethea, T., Khalili, A., Sloan, A. P., Rennaker, R. L., 3rd, & Carmel, J. B. (2017). An Automated Test of Rat Forelimb Supination Quantifies Motor Function Loss and Recovery After Corticospinal Injury. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 31(2), 122–132. View Publication.
  25. Wu YK, Levine JM, Wecht JR, et al. Posteroanterior cervical transcutaneous spinal stimulation targets ventral and dorsal nerve roots. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2020 Feb;131(2):451-460. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.056.
  26. Harel NY, Carmel JB. Paired Stimulation to Promote Lasting Augmentation of Corticospinal Circuits. Neural Plasticity. 2016;2016:7043767. DOI: 10.1155/2016/7043767.
  27. Siddiq MM, Hannila SS, Carmel JB, et al. Metallothionein-I/II Promotes Axonal Regeneration in the Central Nervous System. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015 Jun;290(26):16343-16356. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.m114.630574.
  28. Gillick BT, Kirton A, Carmel JB, Minhas P, Bikson M. Pediatric stroke and transcranial direct current stimulation: methods for rational individualized dose optimization. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2014 ;8:739. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00739.
  29. Ferre CL, Brandão MB, Hung YC, Carmel JB, Gordon AM. Feasibility of caregiver-directed home-based hand-arm bimanual intensive training: a brief report. Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 2015 Feb;18(1):69-74. DOI: 10.3109/17518423.2014.948641.
  30. Carmel JB, Martin JH. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. 2014 ;8:51. DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00051.
  31. Friel KM, Kuo HC, Carmel JB, Rowny SB, Gordon AM. Improvements in hand function after intensive bimanual training are not associated with corticospinal tract dysgenesis in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Experimental Brain Research. 2014 Jun;232(6):2001-2009. DOI: 10.1007/s00221-014-3889-x.
  32. Carmel JB, Kimura H, Martin JH. Electrical stimulation of motor cortex in the uninjured hemisphere after chronic unilateral injury promotes recovery of skilled locomotion through ipsilateral control. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2014 Jan;34(2):462-466. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.3315-13.2014.
  33. Hannila SS, Siddiq MM, Carmel JB, et al. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor reverses inhibition by CNS myelin, promotes regeneration in the optic nerve, and suppresses expression of the transforming growth factor-β signaling protein Smad2. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2013 Mar;33(12):5138-5151. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.5321-12.2013.
  34. Carmel JB, Kimura H, Berrol LJ, Martin JH. Motor cortex electrical stimulation promotes axon outgrowth to brain stem and spinal targets that control the forelimb impaired by unilateral corticospinal injury. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 2013 Apr;37(7):1090-1102. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12119.
  35. Carmel JB, Kim S, Brus-Ramer M, Martin JH. Feed-forward control of preshaping in the rat is mediated by the corticospinal tract. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 2010 Nov;32(10):1678-1685. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07440.x.
  36. Brus-Ramer M, Carmel JB, Martin JH. Motor cortex bilateral motor representation depends on subcortical and interhemispheric interactions. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2009 May;29(19):6196-6206. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.5852-08.2009.
  37. Carmel JB, Berrol LJ, Brus-Ramer M, Martin JH. Chronic electrical stimulation of the intact corticospinal system after unilateral injury restores skilled locomotor control and promotes spinal axon outgrowth. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2010 Aug;30(32):10918-10926. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.1435-10.2010.
  38. Brus-Ramer M, Carmel JB, Chakrabarty S, Martin JH. Electrical stimulation of spared corticospinal axons augments connections with ipsilateral spinal motor circuits after injury. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2007 Dec;27(50):13793-13801. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.3489-07.2007.
  39. Cizkova D, Carmel JB, Yamamoto K, et al. Characterization of spinal HSP72 induction and development of ischemic tolerance after spinal ischemia in rats. Experimental Neurology. 2004 Jan;185(1):97-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2003.09.020.
  40. Carmel JB, Kakinohana O, Mestril R, et al. Mediators of ischemic preconditioning identified by microarray analysis of rat spinal cord. Experimental Neurology. 2004 Jan;185(1):81-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2003.09.007.


  1. Hill, N. J., Prusky, G. T., & Carmel, J. B. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 16/314,124.
  2. Voit, W. E., Garcia-Sandoval, A., & Carmel, J. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 16/344,100.